# Out-Of-Equilibrium Transverse Momentum Spectra of Pions at LHC Energies

02 June 2019

Abstract: In order to characterize the transverse momentum spectra ( ${p}_{T}$ ) of positive pions measured in the ALICE experiment, two thermal approaches are utilized; one is based on degeneracy of nonperfect Bose-Einstein gas and the other imposes an ad hoc finite pion chemical potential. The inclusion of missing hadron states and the out-of-equilibrium contribute greatly to the excellent characterization of pion production. An excellent reproduction of these ${p}_{T}$ -spectra is achieved at ${\mu }_{\pi }=\mathrm{0.12}$ GeV and this covers the entire range of ${p}_{T}$ . The excellent agreement with the experimental results can be understood as a manifestation of not-yet-regarded anomalous pion production, which likely contributes to the long-standing debate on “anomalous” proton-to-pion ratios at top RHIC and LHC energies.

Published in: Advances in High Energy Physics 2019 (2019) 4604608