Unrestored Electroweak Symmetry

Meade, Patrick (C. N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA) ; Ramani, Harikrishnan (Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA and Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA)

01 February 2019

Abstract: The commonly assumed cosmological history of our Universe is that at early times and high temperatures the Universe went through an electroweak phase transition (EWPT). Assuming an EWPT, and depending on its strength, there are many implications for baryogenesis, gravitational waves, and the evolution of the Universe in general. However, it is not true that all spontaneously broken symmetries at zero temperature are restored at high temperature. In particular the idea of “inverse symmetry breaking” has long been established in scalar theories with evidence from both perturbative and lattice calculations. In this Letter we demonstrate that with a simple extension of the standard model it is possible that the EW symmetry was always broken or only temporarily passed through a symmetry-restored phase. These novel phase histories have many cosmological and collider implications that we discuss. The model presented here serves as a useful benchmark comparison for future attempts to discern the phase of our Universe at Ta few GeV.

Published in: Physical Review Letters 122 (2019)
Published by: APS
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.041802
arXiv: 1807.07578
License: CC-BY-4.0

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