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Home > European Physical Journal C (Springer/SIF) > U (1) extension of the standard model from short-distance structure of spacetime |

Nam, Cao H. (Aff1, grid.444918.4, Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, 550000, Da Nang, Vietnam) (Aff2, 0000 0004 0470 5454, grid.15444.30, Department of Physics, College of Science, Yonsei University, 120-749, Seoul, Korea)

04 May 2019

**Abstract: ** In this paper, we presented a U(1) \documentclass[12pt]{minimal}
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\begin{document}$$\mathrm {U}(1)$$\end{document} extension of the SM and the corresponding consequences, based on a more fundamental structure of the spacetime. We started fundamentally from a generally covariant theory which includes a set of the fields propagating dynamically in the fundamental spacetime and respecting for the SM gauge group. We then derived, in the effective four-dimensional spacetime, an extension of the SM with the gauge group SU(3)C⊗SU(2)L⊗U(1)Y⊗U(1)X \documentclass[12pt]{minimal}
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\begin{document}$$\mathrm {SU}(3)_C\otimes \mathrm {SU}(2)_L\otimes \mathrm {U}(1)_Y\otimes \mathrm {U}(1)_X$$\end{document} . Due to the structure of the spacetime, the tiny observed neutrino masses are an unavoidable consequence in this scenario. Also, the phenomenology of the new neutral gauge boson is discussed in detail.

**Published in: ****EPJC 79 (2019) 384**
**DOI: **10.1140/epjc/s10052-019-6895-0

**License: **CC-BY-3.0